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How Barberton Mines are using handheld LiDAR to improve efficiency and promote safety

Location

Mpumalanga, South Africa

Scan time

Approx. 10-15 minutes per scan

Size

Size differ per solution

Scanned

Barberton Mines

Industry

Mining

Mining in South Africa

The mining industry in South Africa contributes R350 billion to the economy annually, with an estimated R35 trillion of resources left to mine. Mining companies in Africa and across the globe are continually reviewing their ways of working and best practices for mining safely, efficiently, and sustainably. Research and development play a big role in these changes, with early adopters of new technologies benefitting the most. 

Barberton Mines has been operational for 130 years and is located in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Consisting of several mines, including Fairview, Sheba, and New Consort, they produce ± 80,000 oz of gold annually. In recent years, Barberton has evaluated new technologies to make its mining processes fast, safe, and cost-effective.

One of the ways in which Barberton Mines investigated new technologies, was by finding ways to improve their survey workflows. They adopted static-based LiDAR solutions to produce accurate 3D models and became one of the first users of handheld SLAM solutions in 2014. 

Why did they choose handheld SLAM?

While static-based scanners are highly accurate, the survey team at Barberton Mines needed a quick and versatile solution for the variety of mining methods employed on the different mines and ore-bodies. The goal was simple; to accurately and safely capture data daily for ongoing analysis of the mining production. In addition, they needed a solution that could easily handle the rugged terrain and environment that mines are so often known for.

Barberton Mines chose to reassess their underground mapping technology to improve the speed and accuracy of their survey operations and increase productivity in the mines. 

How GeoSLAM fits in at Barberton Mines

Barberton Mines was the first mine in Sub-Saharan Africa to use GeoSLAM technology when they purchased a ZEB1 in 2014. The results and continued success on the mine prompted them to invest in 4 ZEB Revo’s in 2019, which are still in use today.

The ZEB Revo is lightweight and accurate, making it the perfect tool for surveying. The survey team can complete scans of the mines in half the time, and the process is repeatable. These capabilities have contributed to Barberton Mines streamlining their workflows, long-term cost savings, and greater returns on investment. 

The scanner’s ease-of-use only requires one person on-site to capture data. Furthermore, it doesn’t require professional training to use the equipment so operators can capture data in parts of the mine that surveyors cannot access for safety reasons. This casts a virtual eye on areas of the mine previously unseen by the surveyors and creates an opportunity to review old tunnels.

Finally, the lack of extensive training required to learn how to operate the scanner benefits new employees and the mine in general. It takes less than an hour to learn how to use the equipment and to process the final point cloud data, allowing surveyors to spend more time assessing final deliverables and finding ways to improve efficiencies in the mining process.

GeoSLAMs scanners have exceeded our expectations and have helped to achieve our goals where other mapping methods could not.”
– Thys Smith, Chief Surveyor at Barberton Mines

Solutions

Having originally invested in handheld scanners for underground mapping, Barberton Mines have since adopted the technology for other applications, further increasing their return on investment. The scanners are now operating across three key aspects of Barberton’s mining process.

Production Progress Mapping

The original and most common use for scanning is Production Progress Mapping. Barberton completes daily scans of the mines, bringing the data back for regular analysis of production progress mapping. 

The scanned areas are approximately 300 m3 and using GeoSLAM technology, they can scan large areas in about 10-15 minutes. In addition, because the scanners are handheld, production at the mine isn’t compromised by having to stop miners from doing their jobs while scanning is in process. 

Using the ZEBs, surveyors no longer need to be underground for extended periods, unlike previous methods. They begin their scans in a safe area, proceed to the mining faces, and finish back in the safe area while capturing the data needed – a completely repeatable and efficient process.

Stockpile Measurements

Barberton Mines has 5-6 stockpiles that make up 4000 cubic tons of material. They frequently measure the volume of these stockpiles, to ensure they have accurate and up-to-date information on their resources. 

Simply walking around the stockpiles with a scanner and importing the data into 3rd party software, provides the survey team with all the information they need to produce required reports. 

Health and Safety

One example of where scanning has improved health and safety is the mapping of transport shafts. To comply with safety regulations, surveyors frequently scan the shafts to look for rock movement or deformation that might require further investigation. 

They found that scanning tunnels from the chairlift with a handheld scanner was quicker than previously used conventional methods, like Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) or by hand. Handheld scanners only require the operator to ride the chairlift down- and back up again, without interfering with production.

The scanners are frequently used in these applications and their robust nature means they have never needed repair or maintenance.

Conclusion

Fast, efficient, and accurate data capture from GeoSLAMs handheld LiDAR scanners have proven to be a huge benefit for Barberton Mines. The repeatability of the scans has provided a great return on investment and the durability has meant that despite being used in challenging environments, the scanners have endured. The increased speed of data capture has led to safer work practices for the surveyors, and the walk-and-scan method has resulted in no disruption to the daily work of the mines.

With the scanner’s versatility, the survey team is still finding new applications where the technology can be utilised in the mining environment.

It is paramount for us to understand our client’s needs, especially in the ever-changing environment of mining. GeoSLAM provided the ultimate mapping solution that best addressed those needs, resulting in improved accuracy and overall productivity.”
– Gustav Fick, SME – Subject Matter Expert UAV & 3D Scanning at OPTRON




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    GeoSLAM for Education

    Watch this webinar to learn how educational institutions are inspiring the next generation of surveyors using GeoSLAM handheld LiDAR scanners.

    Hear from three guest speakers from different Universities and Colleges across the world discussing their own individual experiences uses handheld LiDAR scanners to support education and inspire their students.

    Key takeaways:

    • What is SLAM?
    • How it powers GeoSLAM technology
    • Why use GeoSLAM for Education?
    • Insights from Ángel A. García Jr,  James Madison University​
    • Insights from Blair Bridger, College of the North Atlantic
    • Insights from Mona Hess, University of Bamberg

    On-demand Webinar

    Watch a previous webinar in your own time

    Smarter Construction: Benefits of Handheld SLAM Mapping

    Monitoring construction progress comes with many challenges and we’d like to help you solve them with SLAM mapping. Watch this webinar to learn how to track the progress of small and large construction projects using mobile LiDAR and automated analytics.

     

    Key takeaways:

    • What is SLAM?
    • The main challenges when monitoring construction progress
    • How can handheld SLAM mapping solve these challenges in small and large projects?
    • Understand how to map larger spaces with GeoSLAM’s ZEB scanners
    • Processing and visualisation in GeoSLAM Connect
    • Big projects/collaboration
    • Deliverables
    monitor construction progress using change detection

    Surveying Interior and Exterior Environmental Features

    Location

    Kansas,

    USA

    Scan time

    Approx. 20 minutes per scan

    Size

    Over 1 million sq/ft per year

    Scanned

    Buildings and Underground Oil Tanks

    Industry

    Surveying

    Collecting Accurate Measurements of Buildings for the Military

    The Kansas Adjutant General’s Department coordinates resources for local, state, and federal use. They also develop internal use documents for the military, including surveying building interiors to create up-to-date and accurate floorplans for military members within Kansas.  

    They have about 35 sites throughout the state, with some locations 100s of miles away from the headquarters. Further, the Adjutant General’s Department manages approximately 250 buildings state-wide, totaling around 2 million sq. ft. of interior space. These factors have led to some difficulties in keeping up with projects, and any changes to the buildings and layouts.

    The team found that when remodelling buildings, they were having issues getting as-builts completed in time. As-builts are documents that are used to compare a building’s design plan versus its final measurements. They also provide accurate blueprints of the building, and the surrounding land, as actually constructed at the end of the project.

    Being able to have one person go out to capture all of the data and have the most current floorplans, along with the accuracy of the scanners is a gamechanger

    Kansas Adjutant General’s Department Use of the ZEB Revo

    Scanning Properties to Keep on Top of Changes Made

    To tackle these issues, the team decided to adopt LiDAR laser scanning technology to aid them in their projects and found GeoSLAM’s ZEB Revo to be the best option. By acquiring GeoSLAM’s technology, the Kansas Adjutant General’s Departments’ goal was to scan over half of their 2 million sq. ft. of interior space every year.

    The ZEB Revo is handheld, accurate and fast, providing the team with a perfect tool. In addition, the simplicity and ease of use means only one team member needs to travel to a site, when necessary. Previous methods of data capture were not as quick or accurate. The ZEB Revo data capture leads to a faster return on projects, higher levels of accuracy, and a high return on investment.

    By using the ZEB Revo, the Kansas Adjutant General’s Department have updated over 1 million sq. ft. of interior space, achieving their overall goal, with just one technician visiting half of the sites per year. The speed of capture of the ZEB means that the average time it takes the team to carry out a scan is just 20 minutes. By collecting accurate measurements, they can now regularly update their GIS database, which provides up to date floorplans throughout the state.

    Data from the ZEB Revo is also used to create ‘X-Ray’ views of their properties for future plans and layouts.

    team member collecting accurate measurements with the ZEB Revo

    Collecting Accurate Measurements with the ZEB Horizon

    Recently, they have expanded their use of handheld LiDAR technology by acquiring a ZEB Horizon, which they use for a variety of reasons. The increased range and data capture points make the ZEB Horizon a great option for large exterior scanning. This is important to the Adjutant General’s Department as they cover land of up to 50 acres.

    Scanning Environmental Features to Work out Contour Lines

    The Kansas Adjutant General’s Department also have tanks that contain hazardous material which they need to track carefully. Using the ZEB Horizon, they scan exterior environmental factors to figure out contour lines within their complex. This helps them work out where any spillages of hazardous material would be, should one occur.

    Using the ZEB Horizon to Ensure Current Asset Management

    With the ZEB Horizon, the team also carry out exterior scans for asset management. Due to the scanners ease-of-use, one engineer can attach it to a truck and drive around their complex. This enables Kansas Adjutant General’s Department to scan their entire site and keep on top of their buildings and resources.

    The team are also looking to expand this by attaching the ZEB Horizon to a UAV in the future.

    Collecting Accurate Measurements of Underground Oil Tanks

    The ZEB Horizon’s time saving, and accurate scans have proven to be a cost-effective method of data capture. For example, scans of underground empty oil storage tanks showed that the Kansas Adjutant General’s Department had been over estimating the tanks collection capacity, leading to an adjustment of the servicing contract.

    Processing Data into Point Clouds and Third Party Integration

    Since The Kansas Adjutant General’s Department acquired GeoSLAM’s technology four years ago, they have carried out approximately 2000 scans, and this number continues to rise.

    Further, the contractors and architects that create as-builts are now using The Kansas Adjutant General’s Department to quality check their work for accuracy. Using GeoSLAM laser scanners, they help find errors in specifications and relay that information to the contractors.

    floorplans created after collecting accurate measurements

    With the help of Seiler Geospatial Division, Kansas Adjutant General’s Department have been able to significantly improve their workflow. To find out more about Seiler, click here.

    seiler logo

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      ZIEN24 use GeoSLAM scanners to create measurement reports for the Real Estate Market

      Location

      Netherlands

      Scan time

      Approx. 15 minutes per scan

      Size

      Varies per scan

      Scanned

      Residential & commercial properties

      Industry

      Real Estate

      Real Estate in the Netherlands

      Real Estate is a fast-moving and highly competitive market. Companies are reliant on good customer relationships based on trust. They realise the importance of providing accurate measurements and specifications of the properties they are advertising. Buildings incorrectly measured could be under or overvalued, which could result in complaints, invalidate a sale, or damage their reputation.

      This is particularly pertinent in the Netherlands, as they have placed a high level of importance on delivering accurate floorplans when advertising a property. In fact, a new regulation was introduced in 2010 after properties in Amsterdam were sold at a higher cost, after being overvalued due to incorrect floorplan measurements. The regulation, BBMI, requires businesses advertising properties to provide accurate floorplans or face potentially heavy fines.

      This required businesses to think differently about how they could quickly and accurately assess the properties they were advertising.

      How ZIEN24 create Measurement Reports for Real Estate

      Rotterdam based media and marketing company, ZIEN24, realised they needed to modernise how they measure properties in light of the regulations. ZIEN24 produces content and digital floorplans for estate agents, covering all types of residential and commercial properties.

      The company began measuring properties using laser rangefinders, which were not only time-consuming but also not cost-effective. The company received complaints when properties were not measured within the limits of the regulation, and the team had to occasionally return to properties to re-measure them. In addition, ZIEN24 was sending both photographers and surveyors to properties, which was not cost-effective or ideal for their clients.

      Having worked with point clouds previously, ZIEN24s co-owner, Boy Van Houten, thought that they could be the solution for accuracy. However, they needed a setup that was quick and effective, so static-based systems were not an option. After researching different scanner options, they decided to try GeoSLAM’s ZEB Revo RT with the ZEB Pano accessory.

      Why ZIEN24 chose to work with the ZEB Revo RT

      The ZEB Revo RT is highly accurate, fast, and easy to use. As it requires minimal training, ZIEN24 taught their photographers to scan properties when they’re on location taking marketing photos. This negated the need for a surveyor, saving ZIEN24 money which could be passed on to their clients. The scanners accuracy largely removes the risk of human error, and ZIEN24 have not received any complaints since starting to use GeoSLAM scanners back in 2019.

      The addition of the ZEB Pano allows them to take informative 360 degree panoramic photography, at a much quicker pace, during a scan. The ZEB Pano stores the exact location of each panoramic image within the scan, enabling more accurate and less intrusive property surveys. This is vital for ZIEN24, as the popularity of virtual house tours increases within the real estate industry.

      The GeoSLAM scanner not only gives us confidence in the end product but gives our clients peace of mind knowing that our fully-automated measurements are highly accurate.

      How the ZEB Revo RT has helped ZIEN24 with their Real Estate services

      As the scanner captures in real-time, the photographers can easily ensure that they are capturing every room, as they walk around. Furthermore, the speed of capture, 200m2 in 15 minutes, means that more properties can be assigned to photographers per day. The data is then processed in their offices in China, and accurate floorplan reports are typically turned around within 24 hours.


      The ZEB Revo RT has also helped them to expand into other markets, and they now offer scanning services to support BIM models.




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        On-demand Webinar

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        GeoSLAM Volumes: Stockpile Volume Measurements Made Easy

        Handheld laser scanners can determine accurate stockpile volume and tonnage measurements without the need for GPS. Walk and scan, or attach the scanner to a drone, pole, or vehicle for remote monitoring of hazardous environments. GeoSLAM’s Volumes software automates data processing to turn your scan data into actionable graphical and numerical data for real-time decision making to effectively monitor and manage your stockpiles.

        Key takeaways:

        • GeoSLAM Volumes – what is it, main uses and key features
        • How to automatically process the captured data
        • View the volume and tonnage results in the data output

        On-demand Webinar

        Watch a previous webinar in your own time

        Introduction to Handheld Laser Scanning

        Handheld laser scanning has become a crucial tool for many businesses who need to collect geospatial data. Compared to the more traditional methods, handheld laser scanning is considerably more efficient and makes it much easier to navigate through difficult spaces such as underground or narrow passages. GeoSLAM handheld LiDAR mapping solutions use next generation SLAM technology to simultaneously localize and map a space up to 10 times faster than traditional methods.

        If you’re new to handheld laser scanning or think your company could benefit from this technology, then this webinar is for you.

        Key takeaways:

        • What is a handheld laser scanning and how does it compare to a static scanner
        • Which industries are using this technology and how are they using it?
        • GeoSLAM scanning solutions – Meet the ZEB Family
        • The software behind it

        Scanning behind a dropped ceiling using mobile LiDAR

        Surveying buildings is difficult and accessing hard to reach areas, like dropped ceiling or raised floors, without disrupting business can be seemingly impossible. In this blog we’ll discuss how SLAM and LiDAR technology has made scanning behind dropped ceilings a simple process.

        GeoSLAM Sample Data

        View and download data in our free point cloud viewer

        Here’s some helpful tips for the best viewing experience

        • If your internet connection allows, move the Point Budget slider to the maximum amount available to view all the points in the cloud.
        • Making the point size smaller using the Point Size slider makes the data easier to view and interpret.
        • In the tools section of the viewer, you can measure the distance and angles of features within the pointcloud.
        • Using the materials section of the viewer, you can use the Select Attributes dropdown to view by intensity, elevation and RGB (if point cloud is coloured).

        Vent Shaft

        Location: United Kingdom
        ZEB Scanner: ZEB Revo RT

        This data was captured using GeoSLAM’s ZEB Cradle accessory.

        Would you like to see a specific dataset that’s not on this page? Contact [email protected]

        Surveying Boston City Hall

        Location

        Boston, USA

        Scan time

        Approx. 20 minutes per scan

        Size

        Over 1 million sq/ft

        Scanned

        Boston City Hall

        Industry

        Surveying

        Boston City Hall was built in 1968, to help boost the city’s economy after years of stagnation. The building and surrounding plaza sought to modernize the city’s urban centre, reinvigorating the run-down neighbourhood of Scollay Square.

        Despite the public investment project being welcomed by the people of Boston, the buildings ‘brutalist’ style of architecture created debate amongst the locals, with some suggesting you either love or hate the concrete design. In spite of the concerns from the public, the city
        hall has been home to the mayor of Boston and the city council for over 5 decades, and the ‘brutal’ style of architecture has become part of Boston’s rich history.

        To encourage more people to use Boston City Hall and to increase accessibility, it was decided in 2017 that the City Hall would be renovated to serve a more modernized purpose. The infrastructure upgrades include better access to utilities, plants and fountains in the plaza area, with the intention of encouraging more people to visit.

        The Horizon was a gamechanger…it’s just amazing in terms of the scanning distance, power of the sensor and the ability to easily capture the entire plaza.

        Peter Garran and his team, from Aerial Genomics, were appointed by The City of Boston and Sasaki with the task of scanning both the interior and exterior of the City Hall, in anticipation of the renovation project. Spanning 9 floors and housing multiple individual rooms, as well as a busy plaza area, the task of mapping the building threatened to take several months to complete. Also, the City Hall is an active office that contains confidential rooms and Aerial Genomics did not want to disrupt everyday operations too much. Considering their options, the team decided the fastest and most cost-effective way of mapping the building and its surrounding area would be to use mobile LiDAR scanners.

        They chose a ZEB Horizon to scan the exterior and inside the Main Hall. The ZEB Revo RT was used to map the buildings vast interior. These scanners were chosen due to their speed, accuracy and mobility. By simply walking around the building, Peter and his team captured the large layout, saving them time.

        As they were scanning during the pandemic, it was key for Peter and his team to spend as little time as possible in the building and compared to other scanning methods, GeoSLAM’s scanners were able to deliver on that goal. With the ZEB Horizon, Aerial Genomics captured both the exterior and interior of the Main Hall in just 4 scans, and in less than 2 hours. This scanner was specifically chosen to scan the Main Hall due to its 100m range being able to capture the high walls. To help combat getting in the way of the City Halls’ day-to-day business, the team were given limited amounts of time in the evening to scan a multitude of rooms inside the Hall. Using the ZEB Revo RT, the team could scan the almost 1 million square feet interior, in just 4 nights, consisting of 5 hours each night.

        The scans were processed using GeoSLAM Hub and merged to create one point cloud, by Aerial Genomics. The manoeuvrability, ease of use and accuracy that the ZEB scanners provided meant the data collected was ready within a week, to be created as a BIM model to send to the architects. The simple, easy to use solution meant the architects could start thinking about the redevelopment and renovation, without the need to visit the hall during a pandemic. The final BIM model, created in Autodesk Revit, is still referred to today.

        Video courtesy of Aerial Genomics
        Surveying Boston City Hall

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          Mapping a decommissioned power station

          Location

          Cape Town, South Africa

          Scan time

          8 Hours Total

          Size

          Approx. 117,000 m2

          Scanned

          Power Station

          Industry

          Surveying

          ZEB Family | Safely surveying a hazardous power station

          All over the globe, countries are looking to nuclear and hydro renewables, not only to provide their electricity needs but to meet climate goals. This is resulting in the shutting down of coal-fossil power plants that no longer have a role to play in a fast-changing world.

          Opened in 1962, the Athlone Power Station was the last coal-fired power station operating in Cape Town, South Africa when it stopped generating power in 2003. The iconic cooling towers, which were known by locals as “The two ladies of Athlone” and had long been a feature of the Cape Town landscape, were demolished several years later.

          The efficient user-friendly GeoSLAM equipment enabled the team to safely and comprehensively survey this hazardous and complex plant.

          Proper planning was essential as demolition can be potentially hazardous for the safety of personnel due to the plant’s age-structure, and onsite teams often having to operate across split levels, in total darkness. The removal of contaminated waste can be equally challenging. Cost is also a major factor and companies responsible for shutting down plant are continuously looking at ways to be cost effective while providing a reliable, fast and efficient service.

          Aurecon, a global engineering, design and advisory company, won the tender from the City of Cape Town to project manage the site for the final stage of decommission. This involved surveying the plant whilst stripping, clearing and removing unused material, redundant equipment and certain historical structures. Their task also included securing all remaining structures, leaving the site in a secure state and registering servitudes for remaining bulk services. Aurecon found Athlone to be a challenging project due to accessibility issues and lack of light. Also, because of the Power Station’s historical importance, salvaging certain unique equipment had to be considered. The team needed a simple and effective solution that could accurately map the site quickly while keeping them safe in a tough environment.

          Aurecon chose to work with mobile LiDAR scanners so that the historians, structural engineers and environmentalists could have the data they needed, without having to enter the potentially dangerous site. For the Athlone project, GeoSLAM’s ZEB Revo RT scanner and ZEB Pano camera were used, as well as the ZEB Horizon and ZEB Cam. The building’s interior and exterior were scanned with the ZEB scanners The two data sets were merged to provide a full 3D point cloud of the entire building.

          Using the Pano, the team generated photos that were incorporated inside the point cloud, so that the offsite survey team could have greater visualisation of the site to feedback commentary. The efficiency of the scanners and speed of capture meant that unlike other scanning methods, the team could repeatedly capture the site. This meant that decisions and assessments could be taken frequently, without the need for lots of people to visit the dangerous site.

          In total, the whole facility was scanned in three days with data sets processed overnight, a total of eight hours. The combined datasets were available within a week, which enabled Aurecon’s modellers to commence work on the classification of components in the power station.

          The final 3D point cloud representation of the interior of the power station enabled the engineering team to assess and quantify the amount of salvage and scrapped material to be removed from the site, and to plan the logistics of the removal in context with the physical shape and size of the existing building.

          The accurate 3D model equipped the stakeholders with information that allowed them to safely and precisely analyse for activities such as material quantification, condition assessment and the preparation of decommissioning method statements.





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            3D Scanning Construction and Demolition Waste

            Location

            Egypt

            Scan time

            17 minutes per scan

            Size

            82,823 m2

            Scanned

            Construction and demolition waste

            Industry

            Construction

            The government of Egypt (GoE) are leading several initiatives to reuse and recycle the ever-increasing quantities of construction and demolition Waste (CDW) around the country. These initiatives include a national strategy and action plan to effectively manage around 40 million tons of CDW generated annually. They target to recycle 50% of CDW materials by 2030. One of the major challenges facing Municipalities in Egypt is calculating the amount of CDW accumulated, due to illegal dumping of waste being common place in cities.

            Commissioned by the Ministry of Environment and the GIZ institution, HBRC (Housing and Building National Research Centre) have been tasked with finding effective methods for quantifying and characterising the amount of CDW in four Egyptian Governorates (Gharbia, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Assuit and Qena).

            This project paves the way to developing an optimal construction and demolition waste management strategy in Egypt. The research team used GeoSLAM’s ZEB Revo RT SLAM laser scanner to map the construction waste piles. The scan data is a sound method for quantifying waste volumes over a period of time, due to the ease of capture and accurate data.

            The traditional surveying of CDW accumulations was not practical as CDW locations are difficult to walk through and experience rapid changes to the waste quantities.

            The ZEB Revo RT is ideal for rapid data capture in real time, making it the perfect tool for this job. By walking through the construction and demolition waste sites, the team are mapping as they go, shortening the amount of time spent in a hazardous environment, reducing health and safety risks.

            The simplicity of the solution means that anybody can capture the data, with minimal training, making the scans repeatable as often as needed. Covering an area of 84,823 m2, the research team conducted 12 scans, dividing the route into zones and each scan lasted an average of 17 minutes.

            Once the scanning was complete, they opened the data in GeoSLAM Hub where the point cloud can be viewed and prepared for GeoSLAM Volumes. Using GeoSLAM Volumes, the researchers could accurately calculate the quantity of construction and demolition waste. The findings were reported back in a presentation during the third International conference on Smart Cities.

            This way of calculating volumes is fast, efficient, cost effective, safer than other methods and repeatable, making the SLAM scanner the right tool for the job. The research effort opens the door into the utilisation of 3D modelling of construction waste management sites.

            The application of laser technology would enable the quick and accurate estimation and modeling of waste quantities.

            https://youtu.be/3iEXCsonWBg

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